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Western Chaps and Their History
by Janine Carter

In order to fully understand all the terminology and styles the western Chap represents, you must first study the history behind them. There are names for the cut and style of chaps according to the usage and the time period you are talking about.
The first type of Chaperajos were the Armas. Chaperajos (leg of armor or later meant to be leather britches) were invented by the Spanish who settled Mexico. You must picture two large slabs of leather much like a flat pair of batwings tied to the saddle. These wings were draped across the legs while riding through tough brush, but when not in use were laid under the riders legs. These were made from heavy buffalo hide or thick cowhide.

The Mexicans cowboy's called vaqueros wore the first leather breaches called Armitas in the early 1800's. These leggings were made from wild animal hides, calfskin, deer, lion and goat. They were attached to a belt at the waist and wrapped around the riders legs with leather bindings. These were typically short, only coming to just below the knee.

The early Texas cowboys designed the first full length complete leather britches which by the 1870's were called Shotguns, because the pants had no seat and resembled a double-barrel shotgun. The plain leggings that had no fringe or conchos were called Closed Legs. By the 1880's some chap makers were making two pieced chaps that were lased up the front, with a square waistband. At the turn of the century the waistband was curved or contoured. The 1900's add zippers. Most of the modern shotguns are made with zippers for a tighter more tailored fit.

With the coming of the Wild West Shows and rodeos came the introduction of the Batwing Chap. These chaps had wide leather wings that flapped around freely which is why they called them Batwing. The first style was the step-into type, then later they were changed to the open legged style that buckled or snapped into place. The Batwings are some of the most decorated variety of the square waisted rodeo style chap with liver studs and conchos, fancy stitching and hand tooling and bright colors. The were personalized by each rider.

In the late 1880's, the Angoras or Woollies were introduced. The northern climates appreciated the warmth and the water repellent qualities of the Woollies. They were made of mountain lion, leopard, angora goats, bear, buffalo, dog and even seal with the fur left on. Any animal with hair would do the job.

Chinks, are similar to chaps, but shorter, typically hitting the rider just below the knee but above the ankle. They are secured by snaps, zippers, buckles or other forms of fasteners stopping above the back of the knee. Chinks are more free-moving for the working cowboy and cooler in the summer. The fringe on chinks run longer than chaps, giving them the appearance of being longer than they are.

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About the Author
This article was written by Janine Carter, owner of Posh Pampered Pets.

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Instincts and Traits in Dogs
by Janine Carter

Domestication of canines was accomplished by humans thousands of years ago. Many think that the world's first dogs were tamed wolves, as dogs share many biological traits with wolves. First of all they look very much alike and their actions are similar. They both have highly developed sense of smell and hearing.
Dogs are extremely loyal and dependent on their masters. They have a place in human society to which few other species can hold a candle. The only reward for dogs in many cases is a kind word and a pat on the head. Still, the study of wolves and dogs teaches us that many of their traits haven't changed from before they were domesticated.

* Body Language is a postural display by canines that show you their intentions. When meeting a strange person, canines display their fear by raising their hackles, meaning, the hair stands up on their backs and necks. This display comes from lack of socialization with others. Of course this behavior would look more frightening with short-haired dogs, making them look larger and making the other dog or person fear him more. Many times a dog will also pull back his lips to show his teeth to make the display even more "large".

* A dogs ears and tail positions can tell you what a dog is thinking. For example, if your dog's ears go back flat and his tail goes between his legs, it means he is being submissive to humans or other dogs. The old saying "ran off with his tail between his legs" came from this postural display of dogs. Another submissive behavior is rolling over on the back.

* If a dog kneels or puts his front legs on the ground lowering his front quarters, it generally means he wants to play. This is always accompanied by a friendly wagging tail.

* Standing tall on stiff legs and circling another dog is a posture of superiority and domination. It often includes strutting around with frequent growling and snarling.

* An instinctive ritual in canines is circling before lying down. Some specialists say that this came from a habit long ago of circling to pack down the grass to give a soft bed to sleep in. Others think the dog is smelling the area for enemies before lying down, as they put their noses to the ground while they are performing this task.

* Attacking small animals is an innate hunting instinct in dogs from the time when they had to hunt for their food.

* Digging is a trait that is thought to come from the dog's instinct to dig a den when there is nothing else appropriate to make a den with. Terriers were known to pursue their quarry through underground tunnels if necessary.

Other things to consider is the dogs sense of smell developed so they can sniff the air to find game and also to sniff out enemies that may be approaching. They have a wonderful sense of hearing for the same reasons and their sight is highly developed.

Although canines' instincts and actions are influenced by their heredity, they are highly intelligent mammals, and are the products of a combination of training, experience and genetics.

This article was written by Posh Pampered Pets, please call 936-520-2903 for any questions. Our home office is located in Waller, Texas, with warehouses located throughout the United States such as Dallas TX, Houston TX, New York NY, Denver CO, Chicago ILL, Seattle WA, Kansas City MO, Miami FL, Raleigh-Durham NC, Washington DC, Los Angeles CA, Fayetteville AR,Philadelphia PA, Phoenix Arizona, San Antonio TX (Texas.

About the Author
This article was written by Janine Carter, owner of Posh Pampered Pets.

8 Tips For Traveling With Your Dog
by Pat Doyle

Just because you have a dog doesn't mean you have to stay home all the time. If you plan ahead and take a little care, it is easy and fun to travel with your dog.
Here are some tips to make the trip easier on both you and your pet:

1. Get your dog used to riding in the car by taking him on short trips. Go to fun places like the dog park, the fast food drive through (where you can feed him bits of meat from your burger), or to visit friends. You want him to think that trips in the car are fun. You don't want your dog to think that all car trips end up at the vet's office.

2. If your dog tends to get carsick, don't feed him the morning of the trip. Having your dog travel with an empty stomach will help to prevent any car sickness.

3. Bring plenty of water and a water dish along. You will need to give your dog periodic drinks of water when you stop for a rest. It will be easier to get your dog to drink if it is familiar water from home. Water in different places often smells or tastes differently, and your dog may not want to drink it.

4. Be sure to pack your dog's food, treats, favorite bed, toys, and leash.

5. If your dog uses a crate, bring that along too. If you don't have a large vehicle, you can buy crates that fold up. When you get to your destination, you can put your dog in his crate while you go somewhere that you can't bring him along.

6. How should your dog travel in the car? Some dogs like to sit or lay on the seat, so bring a blanket to protect the upholstery. Other dogs may need to be kept in a crate in the car. Be sure the crate can't slide around and scare the dog while you're driving. You can also purchase dog seat belts to keep your dog safe while sitting in the car.

7. Make a stop every few hours to walk your dog and give him some water. Some dogs are frightened by the noisy trucks driving by, so try to walk in a quiet area. Be a good citizen and bring plastic bags along to pick up the mess.

8. If your dog is anxious about staying in a hotel or strange house at your destination, he might not eat or drink. You don't want him to get dehydrated, so be sure to get him to drink, at least. You can mix chicken broth or gravy into the dog's water. That will usually get him to lap it right up. You can mix chicken broth or gravy into the food too.

The first trip will be the hardest, because your dog will not realize that you are coming back. With the first trip behind you, if you have taken the time to make sure it is pleasant for your dog, future traveling with your dog should be a breeze.

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'Kill List' E-mails Save Shelter Dogs from Death
By Alison Hill - Zootoo

GREENVILLE, S.C. -- A South Carolina animal shelter is going to new lengths to avoid putting animals down, by sending out mass “death row” notices via e-mail.

Rosie, a 5-year-old Beagle, was featured on one of these e-mails. She was at the Greenville County Animal Shelter, and was unadoptable because of severe health problems.

The e-mail, referring to Rosie and another dog on death row, said, “They will both be euthanized tomorrow at 8 a.m. unless someone speaks for them.”

Luckily, however, Rosie was spotted by animal lover Cecelia Hardee just in the nick of time.

“I received an e-mail one evening at around 7,” Hardee said. “It was forwarded to me by my groomer, who originally received it from the animal shelter.

“It was just heart wrenching, that this animal was a 5-year-old beagle needing a home that would be euthanized by 8 the next morning if not adopted.

“Just cut and dry, that was it. No frills, just the facts.”

Hardee managed to reach a shelter worker that night and Rosie's life was spared. Still, she remained very sick with heartworm, intestinal parasites and neurological damage from distemper.

Rosie had also been abused and was riddled with scars from being shot with a BB gun. Despite all those problems, though, Hardee gave her a home. Less than a month later, Hardee faced another challenge when she discovered Rosie was pregnant.

Rosie's puppy, “Ellie,” is now 4-months-old and keeps mom -- and Cecelia on their toes.

“Rosie had three puppies, and we kept one for companionship for Rosie,” Hardee said. “And it’s been a miracle, it’s really been healing for her as well. It has really taught her how to be a dog in a normal environment.”

Greenville County Animal Care Services started sending the warning e-mails last October, after the county bought a facility owned by the Humane Society.

Now the two have teamed up, with the shelter receiving strays and turn-ins. After about five days the Humane Society picks the most adoptable animals for their adoption floor.

Greenville County rescue coordinator, Taryn Arnold, is one of two staff members that send out e-mails to rescue groups and individuals all over the county. She helped initiate the process, which includes taking pictures of the animals, writing their description, and providing the date of their expected euthanasia.

Then all they can do is hope someone will respond in time.

“There is a limited amount of space that they have up there to put animals on the floor, and so the rest of the animals are left here and they’re either rescued out to rescue groups or they’re euthanized,” Arnold said.

“A lot of times it’s healthy animals, and it is dogs and cats,” she said. “We have a separate list for cats, and a separate list for pit bulls, and then a separate list for just dogs.”

So far this drastic measure has been very effective, with the number of rescues growing from 35 in the first month to more than 400. Some pets have been given homes as far away as Massachusetts.

Fly, an injured Chihuahua, and Flame, a dog with severe burns, have both found a place with rescue groups and will live to see another day. There are, however, many more animals needing help, some that will never survive.

To illustrate the urgency of the situation, during our visit three young pit bulls were running out of time – with less than two hours to live.

“I'm trying my best to stop euthanizing everything,” Arnold said. “Everybody here hates to have to do it. We all take turns in the euthanasia room, but we hate it just as much as the next person.

“But it's always going to happen as long as people don't spay and neuter their pets.”

Rosie was one of the lucky ones, thanks to this unique e-mail system that gave her a second chance.

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